Database Glossary – C
Useful Terms For Working With Data

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C


Calculated Field

See: Attribute, Computed

Case; Casing

To designate which characters in an alpha string will be uppercase and which willbe lowercase. Common casing methods include: uppercase all characters; lowercase all characters; uppercase first character of the string; uppercase the first character of each “word” (space-separated substrings) contained
(aka called “Proper” case); lowercase the entire string, then uppercase the first character; or lowercase the entire string, then uppercase the first character of each “word.”

Case-Sensitive

To be aware of the case of character values. In this context, “SPUD,” “Spud” and “spud” would all be considered as different strings, so the case-sensitivity of a function or query will influence the values they will return.

Catalog

A catalog is a named collection of schemas used with really large databases where even multiple schemas may not prove sufficient to maintain a distinction between tables. The catalog also contains the information schema, which holds the system tables that in turn hold the metadata associated with other contained schemas.

See also: Schema.

Child Table

See: Table, Child.

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Client

That part of a DBMS that displays information on the screen and responds to user input (the front-end).

Client/Server System

A multi-user system in which a central processor (server) is connected to multiple intelligent user workstations (clients).

Collation

A set of rules that determine how strings of characters compare with one another. Every character set has a default collation. In the default collation of the ASCII character set, for example, * comes before 1, 1 comes before 2, A comes before and B comes before C etc.

Column

Synonymous with field.

See also: Field and Attribute.

Commit

Decision to proceed with the actual posting of a change to the database.

Composite Key

See: Key, Composite.

Composite Record

See: Record, Composite.

Concatenation

Linking a consecutive series of field values, strings or a combination of both together in order to build a data item or field value (e.g. concatenating City
+ comma + space + State + space + ZIP Code to form the last line of an address).

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Conceptual View

The schema of a database.

See also: Schema.

Concurrent Access

Two or more users operating on the same records in the same database table at the same time.

Consolidation

Also known as merging (mailing list terminology), consolidation is merging various data sets into a single master set, standardizing table structure, data types, fields and their values.

Constraints

Data restrictions specified in a database; rules that determine what values the field to the table can assume.

Criterion (pl. criteria)

A characteristic or limitation applied to a field’s values in order to select qualifying records from a table during a query.

Cross-Join

See: Join, Cross.

CRM: (Customer Relationship Management)

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a widely-implemented strategy for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the company already has, entice former clients back into the fold, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service.

Crosstab

An operation that summarizes juxtaposes field values within two levels of record grouping; specified as a two-dimensional view.